Firefighters' lives have been sacrificed by "special disasters," including the subway sarin gas attack on the Tokyo subway system, the criticality accident at the JCO uranium processing plant, and the fire at the refused-derived fuel (RDF) plant in Mie Prefecture. Firefighters must rush to emergency situations, including fires and disasters that are unprecedented or unfamiliar, to prevent further damage and casualties, control fires as soon as possible, and engage in rescue efforts. Developing technology that can protect firefighters and aid effective firefighting efforts is indispensable for reducing the damage inflicted by special types of disasters. We are developing techniques for comprehending the state of damage in a disaster hit area before firefighting begins and are conducting research on establishing advanced extinguishing technology in the event of special types of disasters. We are also developing firefighting support robots, and rescue equipment and materials to ensure the safety of firefighters, and reduce the burden on them.